While there is a suggestion that male and female fetuses may mature differently based on the timing of maternal HPA activation Ellman et al. Can a baby's heartbeat predict their sex? There are, however, several unreplicated reports of differential responsiveness by sex to external stimuli, including greater orientation to speech sounds by female fetuses Groome et al.
Exercise tips for pregnancy.
We were unable to find reports of differential effects of moderate exposure on male and female offspring that included measurement of developmental outcomes. In: Lecanuet JP, et al. A similar value for FAS is reported elsewhere in the same age group Streissguth et al. There is little doubt, although limited substantiation, that the fetus plays an active role in instigating parturition.
Male fetal progenitor cells persist in maternal blood for as long as 27 years postpartum. Prenatal bisphenol A exposure and maternally reported behavior in baby sex based on heartbeat in Henderson and girls. Imaging findings suggest that prenatal exposure to CPF, for example, exerts long term alternations to sexually dimorphic brain regions Rauh et al.
Prenatal tobacco exposure and infant stress reactivity: Role of child sex and maternal behavior. A prenatal ultrasound is a non-invasive test that uses audible sound waves to produce images of a fetus's shape and position in the uterus. Decreased brain volume in adults with childhood lead exposure.
In particular, efforts to understand developmental outcomes with well-known sex differentials, such as autism spectrum disorder, through the lens of the prenatal environment may yield important clues to etiology and pathogenesis Davis and Pfaff, The most prominent effects of antenatal cigarette smoking are restrictions to fetal growth.
There is one unreplicated report that prenatal depression is linked to disruptions in neonatal motor behavior and state regulation for boys but not girls Gerardin et al. Am J Hum Biol. Although sex differences in vulnerability are most often found for male offspring, there are reports of female vulnerability, particularly with respect to affective outcomes Sandman et al.