Turner's Syndrome. Testosterone can cause typically male behaviors such as: Aggression, competiveness, Visio-spatial abilities, higher sexual drive etc. Own sex is considered the in-group, opposite sex is considered the out-group.
Lobotomy brain surgery 5. Gender reassignment surgery 3. Concepts of mental illness in the West. The study of mice has been highly informative in parsing out the mechanisms of a major contributor to sex differences in the brain, differential cell death.
The idea that there are sex-specific circuits may stem in part from the existence of numerous robust and reliable anatomical sex differences in brain regions critical for the expression of sex behavior 4353 The role of glia in the hypothalamus: implications for gonadal steroid feedback and reproductive neuroendocrine output.
Abolition of male sexual behaviors in mice lacking estrogen receptors alpha and beta alpha beta ERKO Proc. Gender identity disorder in children and adolescence. Another option is that they were just gay men.
The modern view emphasizes a diversity of proximate mechanisms and an interaction of multiple sex-specific factors in many brain regions. Its aim is partly to try to understand what laypeople think about GID and whether their beliefs about cause and treatment are related.
American Journal of Psychiatry. However, most studies of the brain and other tissues continue to focus on one sex, usually males, or fail to report the sex of the animals 9. Theory and concepts. Biology has something to offer but it doesn't appear to be able, yet, to bear the weight of type of questions that come up.
However, men are hurt as well. Savic I, Arver S. Effects of age and gender on neuroanatomical volumes.