Hummingbirds and moths have elongated and curved beaks or tongues that match spur lengths, and many birds and bats capture pollen on their foreheads and faces as they reach for nectar rewards [ 88 ]. Plant Phys.
Variation in nectar reward and the incidental collection of pollen, with the exception of bees can lead to variation in reproductive success within a population.
Conner Trends in Genetics Second, even if multiple mates are present, the quality of the mates can differ greatly . Antigen retrieval Darwin was the first to recognize that sexual selection is a strong evolutionary force.
The mechanism by which nuclei are selected as mating partner is very similar to that found in broadcast spawners, via pheromones secreted by the male nuclei [ ].
Darwin was the first to recognize that sexual selection is a strong evolutionary force. Natural variation in non-coding regions underlying phenotypic diversity in budding yeast. Each yeast cell can only mate once, because the zygote formed after mating will not be able to fuse again.
This monokaryon now has the opportunity to select between the two male nuclei. Experimental evolution of species recognition. Formerly with ScienceBlogs. Nucleic Acids Res ; 36 —
Evolution of gamete recognition proteins. For example, when all your ova have been fertilized, the only sensible investment is in male function unless more ova can be produced, which seems less likely due to the necessary investment in the developing zygote.
Reverse genetics in rice using Tos Postfertilization causes of differential success of pollen donors in Erythronium grandiflorum Liliaceae —nonrandom ovule abortion. In the red seaweed Chondrus crispus , levels of multiple mating are very high with a bias towards some paternal genotypes.
Hydration of pollen in plants with dry stigmas appears to be highly species-specific [ 34 , 35 ], suggesting that divergence in the cues used might favour the rapid evolution of some male—female reproductive lipids, carbohydrates or proteins in plants [ 30 ].