Effects of gonadectomy on performance in operant tasks measuring prefrontal cortical function in adult male rats. Neuroimage 61 : — Testosterone administration attenuates regional brain hypometabolism in women with anorexia nervosa. Dopamine plays a critical role in tuning pyramidal neurons involved in working memory either directly, or indirectly through inhibitory neurons, and the correct amount of dopamine not too little and not too much is required for optimal signal to noise and accurate information processing Goldman-Rakicindicating that changes in the control of dopamine neurotransmission at adolescence contribute to the attainment of mature functional ability of the human PFC.
Behav Brain Res. Front Neurosci 8 :
Oestrogen receptors and signalling pathways: implications for neuroprotective effects of sex steroids in Parkinson's disease. Marquez et al. In rodents, unlike in humans Kiess et al. Increased amygdala dopamine levels after acute stress in females, but not males.
In addition, both naturally fluctuating hormone levels and OC use have been related to alterations in the default mode and executive control networks Petersen et al, Revised : 22 June
Neural correlates of probabilistic category learning in patients with schizophrenia. Widespread increases of cortical serotonin type 2A receptor availability after hormone therapy in euthymic postmenopausal women. Front Neuroendocrinol 29 : — Thus, sex hormones modulate HPA axis function in both humans and rodents during adolescence.
This is important in the context of psychiatric illness, since at-risk young people experience high levels of stress Pruessner et al. Sex hormones exert at least some of their effects on dopamine signaling through midbrain dopamine neurons, by acting directly and indirectly on dopamine cell bodies to control changes in dopamine synthesis and response during adolescent brain maturation.
Few preclinical studies using [ 18 F]FDG PET have been performed to investigate the effect of sex steroid hormones on brain glucose metabolism.
Furthermore, a plethora of PET tracers for specific neurotransmitter receptors and transporters are available. The neurosteroids progesterone and allopregnanolone reduce cell death, gliosis, and functional deficits after traumatic brain injury in rats.
No participant reported missing a capsule and none had any left at the end of the study. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. External link.