Prenatal hormone effects shown from studies of CAH, Turner's and androgen insensitivity syndromes [ 96 ] No reliable evidence for the effect of sex chromosome genes proven from genes and brain sex differences in Oxfordshire of Turner's and XX males [ 97 ] Greater brain asymmetry in men for both verbal and non-verbal tasks [ 98 ; 99 ] Play behavior-movement There are sex differences in choice of toys, gender of the play partner, social play [ ] and movement [ ; ; ] Testosterone influences juvenile play [ ] Prenatal androgen levels affect play behavior and movement [ ; ] Genetics sex seems to affect play behavior more than prenatal hormone exposure [ ] Parents and other socializing agents i.
XX mice developed habitual behavior more rapidly than the XY animals independent of their gonadal phenotype and even after gonadectomy. Low self-control and opportunity: Testing the general theory of crime as an explanation for gender defferences in delinquency.
Males typically exhibit more aggressive behaviors compared to females [ ; ; ]. A role for imprinted genes in human sexual orientation was hypothesized earlier [ ]. H-Y antigen and homosexuality in men. Sex beyond the genitalia: The human brain mosaic.
Author manuscript; available in PMC Apr 1.
Berlin : Springer. Recently, researchers have used genome-wide surveys to identify targets of Sry in the gonad. Atypical sexual behavior in rodents is hard to equate to human sexuality. Cahill L. The nature of Sry 's modulation on TH remains unclear. Association between serotonin transporter gene polymorphisms and greater impulsivity in males but not females [ ] Polymorphisms in monoamine oxidase-A MAOA gene associated with antisocial personality disorder and aggression in males [ ].
An elaboration genes and brain sex differences in Oxfordshire the hypothesis presented above is that it is not just the testes and androgens that are essential but also Srythe gene that initiates testicular development.
That is, brain sex differences uniquely affect biochemical processes, may contribute to the susceptibility to specific diseases, and may influence specific behaviors. Pituitary-adrenal cortical responses to low-dose physostigmine and arginine vasopressin administration in normal women and men.
Overall, the data were consistent with higher volume and cortical surface area—but not cortical thickness or microstructural characteristics—chiefly in the superior temporal region, but also spread across multiple other regions to a lesser extent, being of particular relevance to sex differences in reasoning but not reaction time.