J Gen Virol — The present study is a comprehensive investigation of the molecular epidemiology of the HIV-1 subtypes circulating in India based on a large number of clinical samples representing different geographic regions using three different viral genes gagpol and env.
In addition to this, the priority demand was the removal of legal clauses articulated in Immoral Trafficking Prevention Act ITPA which criminalises sex work.
The charter includes seven demands which include access to basic services, pension at the age of 45 years, participation in policy making bodies and in programme implementation. Download: PPT. Second, the present analysis was restricted to mainly heterosexual transmission and only a few samples from intravenous drug users and perinatal transmission.
The charter was shared with the spokespeople of all political parties in the country. Neogi and Dr.
To challenge the hegemony of societal attitudes and discriminatory practices towards sex workers. Mean known duration of sero-positivity available for patients was 12 months Range 0— months. Authors would like to thank staff of the respective sites for their support in patient recruitment and sample collection.
Also, the number of degenerate bases were low in all samples, which were classified as recombinant strains, thus eliminating the possibility of dual infection. Right to Sex Work. Our priority areas: Support collectivisation of sex workers in different parts of the country with an objective to build their solidarity and confidence and to raise voices against violence, discrimination, harassment, etc.
The relative lack of intermingling between Indian and African strains suggest that the main Indian HIV-1C epidemic has largely evolved independently over the last four decades, and that later transmission events between these regions have only caused a minor contribution to the overall prevalence in the Indian states included in this study.
Selection of Reference Strains for tMRCA Analysis Reference sequences were selected among the full-length subtype C sequences available at the Los Alamos database, since they covered the env , gag and pol regions investigated in this study.
The demographic history from the pol BSP identified three epidemic growth phases Figure 4 , an initial slow growth phase until the mids followed by an exponential growth phase till the late and early s followed by a stationary phase, approaching the present time.
All the identified HIV-1B and A1 strains in the single gene analysis turned out to be recombinant strains when two or three viral genes were taken into considerations. Furthermore, these 17 recombinant strains represented a large magnitude of genetic diversity - at least five different B-C and three different A1-C recombinants Table 1.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr — Indian J Med Res —