Patterson and Wainright Friedman, C. National Survey of Family Growth a Gartrell et al. It is conceivable that there might be differences in family relationships, parenting stress, or child outcomes associated with whether the sperm donor was known i. There have been many recent reviews of the literature e.
McCallum, E. The gold standard for much research on American families is the use of nationally representative data Russell and Muraco Lesbian, gay, and bisexual college student experiences: an exploratory study.
The strength of the social safety net, understood in terms of welfare regimes, could also explain gendered patterns of relationship recognition for same-sex couples. Source: 1 Statistics Canada and Statistics Canada In the next section, we discuss the three existing theoretical explanations for gender differences in same-sex marriage rates and their limitations.
Although we see no change in France or Spain, the recent removal of some disincentives to marry in France suggests that France may ultimately move in the direction of gender parity or even female majorities to the extent that marriage facilitates legal ties to children.
Further, the gender composition of the household focuses on children under age, the age of 18 who are living with their parents at the time of interview and exclude parents of older children or those who are nonresidential.
In terms of new research on child well-being, Goldberg and Smith examine families who have adopted children younger than 18 months old. Allen et al. Responding to this shortcoming, Regnerus, in the follow-up paper Regnerus b , included a family category based on whether the respondent had spent time living with a mother who had a same-sex sexual partner.
It is conceivable that there might be differences in family relationships, parenting stress, or child outcomes associated with whether the sperm donor was known i.